Government and industry should boost investment in technology to promote the use of hydrogen as a way of storing energy, which would make the UK energy system greener and more efficient
The UK gas grid has the potential to store excess electricity in the form of hydrogen, for a greater amount of time than some other forms of energy storage, such as batteries. This hydrogen can then be used in all areas of the energy system producing low emissions fuel for transport, reducing the CO2 emissions from the heating system, reused to generate electricity as well as a greener feedstock for industries such as ammonia and plastics production.
In order for power to gas technology to transform the UK energy system, the Institution of Mechanical
Engineers makes the following recommendations:
- UK Government must commit to creating an industrial forum that brings together the
nuclear, renewable power and gas sectors to promote the generation and storage of hydrogen for use across the UK energy system in heat, transport, power generation and heavy industry. Investment now in the future hydrogen economy will begin to encourage further innovation, open up markets and help clarify legislation and regulation.
- UK Government must work with the gas industry to promote the use of up to 20% hydrogen in the gas distribution network including change in pipes and materials by 2023. Funding programmes and demonstration sites are crucial to decarbonising gas. Government has the power to finance research, development and demonstration and support deployment through programmes such as Innovate UK, as well as bespoke programmes designed to deliver future UK infrastructure.
- UK Government should commission a comprehensive comparative study of the long-term sustainability of materials used to create lithium ion EV batteries versus power-to-gas/gas systems and fuel cells, particularly for energy storage, to identify appropriate technology and life cycle analysis. By understanding this more clearly, UK Government can make evidence-based investment decisions that meet the requirements of sustainable development in the electricity, transport and heat sectors.